Avatars without Gravatar

Back when Gravatar launched many years ago it was a game-changer. All of a sudden, I no longer had to change my profile picture on all those dozens of forums and sites I was active on but could do that in a central place. Years later I still consider it a great service but especially for internal sites problematic to have calls to some central external service that is not under your control that in the worst-case can see for what website an avatar has been requested. At the same time, sometimes you simply don’t want to give someone a picture of you just so that they can hand it over to someone else again.

While playing with my Liberapay account I stumbled upon a service similar to Gravatar that I hadn’t heard of before despite it already being nearly a decade old: Libravatar. At the first glance, Libravatar is pretty much the same as Gravatar except that its source code is open. If you look a bit deeper, though, you’ll notice that it’s actually a federated system. There is an open protocol behind it that let’s you, for instance, run your own instance, and services that support Libravatar should check your own service first before doing any kind of fallback (e.g. through the central but struggling Libravatar.org server).

Client implementation

So how should a website (or a generic client implementation) retrieve a person’s profile picture given that user’s email-address? Let’s work on a little example function that does all that:

import hashlib
import dns.resolver
import sys


def get_avatar_url(raw_email):
    # We need the md5 sum of the lowercase'd email
    email = raw_email.strip().lower()
    hash = hashlib.md5()
    hash.update(email.encode('utf-8'))
    hash = hash.hexdigest()

    handler_base_url = get_handler(email)
    return f'{handler_base_url}{hash}'


def get_handler(email):
    handler_base_url = 'https://cdn.Libravatar.org/avatar/'
    emaildomain = email.split('@')[1]

    # Since browser complain about non-https content on https sites let's
    # prefer https here:
    srv_entries = ['_avatars-sec._tcp', '_avatars._tcp']
    for entry_prefix in srv_entries:
        try:
            for answer in dns.resolver.query(
                    f'{entry_prefix}.{emaildomain}', 'SRV'):
                host = str(answer.target).rstrip('.')
                if 'sec' in entry_prefix:
                    return f'https://{host}:{answer.port}/avatar/'
                return f'http://{host}:{answer.port}/avatar/'
        except Exception as e:
            pass
    return handler_base_url


if __name__ == '__main__':
    mail = sys.argv[1]
    print(get_avatar_url(mail))

So the first thing a website wanting to show an avatar should do is check the DNS records of the domain part of the email address. If this offers _avatars-sec._tcp and/or _avatars._tcp SRV entries, these should point to a server that implements the Libravatar protocol and can therefore be queried.

Once we have such a base URL, all we have to do is append the MD5 hash of the complete email address to it and a couple of optional parameters in order to retrieve the image itself:

  • size/s for the width/height of the image to be returned (default seems to be 80)
  • default/d for the URL of a fallback image should the email not exist in the server’s database. This parameter also has a couple of reserved values for more generic fallback mechanism. You can find a complete list in the spec but here are the most useful in my opinion:
    • 404: If the email could not be found in the database, then a HTTP 404 error should be returned instead of a fallback image
    • mm/mp: Generic silhouette icons

The default option is actually a bit more complicated since most implementations are falling back to Gravatar before even considering the default option simply because Gravatar also supports this parameter.

In cases where you explicitly want to retrieve the default image, use the forcedefault=y/f=y parameter in combination with the default parameter.

Just to make this clear: The example above is just that. An example. If you want to integrate Libravatar in your own project, please use one of the pre-existing libraries that are listed on libravatar.org!

An experimental server implementation

Since I learn protocols best by implementing them, I also gave this one a try. You can find the complete source code on https://github.com/zerok/microavatar. This implementation is mostly intended for personal use as you have to upload avatars and set the mapping between email and avatar file manually:

$ microavatar server \
  --addr localhost:8888 \
  --cache-folder /var/cache/microavatar \
  --email "me@email.com:/path/to/file.jpg"

So far, I have this implementation running on avatars.zerokspot.com and set the respective SRV DNS entries accordingly for my various “@zerokspot.com” addresses:

_avatars._tcp.zerokspot.com. 60 IN      SRV     10 100 80 avatars.zerokspot.com.
_avatars-sec._tcp.zerokspot.com. 60 IN  SRV     10 100 443 avatars.zerokspot.com.

Liberapay not the best example

After all this work, I set my profile on Liberapay to use LibAvatar in the hope that they’d do the DNS lookup I described above. Sadly, they don’t. They just calculate the hash and then forward it to Libravatar.org. So me writing my own server and jumping through all these hoops to be a good federated avatar citizen seems to have been in vain. At least I had fun and learnt something new 😅

Updates:

  • 2020-05-27 13:17 +02:00: Added a link to existing libraries.

Do you want to give me feedback about this article? Please send it to comments@zerokspot.com.

Alternatively, I'm also experimenting with Webmentions. If you write a post on a blog that supports this technique, I should get notified about your link 🙂